Nos ha dejado Richard Teitelbaum, pionero de la música electrónica

Endre
#1 por Endre el 23/04/2020
Se dice que Richard Teitelbaum, fallecido de un derrame cerebral con 80 años, fue la primera persona en traer un sintetizador Moog a Europa. Corrían los sesenta y este neoyorquino, pianista de formación clásica procedente de una familia acomodada, había aprovechado su estancia en Roma con una beca Fullbright para fundar Musica Elettronica Viva, un colectivo que investigaba las posibilidades de la electrónica y la improvisación.

Contaba que todo había partido de una experiencia alucinatoria que tuvo en Roma en 1966. “Sentado con dos buenos amigos en tres esquinas de una gran cama nos pareció que durante varios minutos nos comunicábamos telepáticamente. Nuestras mentes, abiertas y sintonizadas en una misma frecuencia facilitaron la emisión y la recepción”. A raíz de aquello decidió investigar la forma de conseguir que eso se convirtiera en sonido. Teitelbaum convenció al inventor Robert Moog para que adaptara su sintetizador modular de tal forma que pudiera usar las oscilaciones neuronales de una persona ajustando electrodos en su cabeza. Al resultado lo llamó brainwave music (música con ondas cerebrales) y fue el primer paso de una larga serie de experimentos que usaban los ritmos del cuerpo humano como origen del sonido.

En ese periodo, los sintetizadores habían dejado de ser enormes monstruos difíciles de transportar y, por primera vez, la electrónica dejaba de ser patrimonio de estudios de grabación y laboratorios para poder interpretarse en directo. Contaba con la curiosidad de cierto tipo de público que, especialmente en el norte de Europa, se congregaba en festivales de jazz o encuentros de arte de vanguardia y con el apoyo económico de instituciones culturales y universitarias que antes de la crisis del petróleo de 1973 vivían un periodo de bonanza. Enamorado de la música de John Cage, uno de los objetivos de Teitelbaum era seguir el camino emprendido por él. “Para definir su idea de indeterminación, John Cage dijo que le gustaba encontrarse en una situación en la que literalmente no supiera lo que estaba haciendo. Creando una situación interactiva en la que el intérprete no puede predecir conscientemente el resultado de sus actos, su mente sobrepasa los niveles superficiales del pensamiento para alcanzar algo más profundo”, escribió en 2006.

Así, en 1968, en la primera representación en vivo de una de sus grabaciones, Organ music, dos sus colaboradores, Irene Aebi y Steve Lacy, sentados en sillas recogían con micrófonos y electrodos sus latidos y sus ondas cerebrales que él mezclaba con su sintetizador. Unos altavoces instalados en las paredes reproducían el resultado para el público. Mientras muchos de sus contemporáneos parecían más preocupados por aprovechar la electrónica para sonar muy alto, su concepción era mucho más sutil. “Mi visión de lo que era la improvisación siempre se ha preocupado con el potencial musical del inconsciente”, dijo en 1974.

Como adalid de la improvisación era natural que Teitelbaum descubriera pronto que sin ser un músico de jazz su visión de la experimentación tenía mucho puntos en común con lo que estaba pasando en el avant jazz. Especialmente con el trabajo de aquellos jazzmen que se resistían a ser calificados así, porque en aquellos años de búsqueda de la absoluta libertad cualquier etiqueta, por amplia que fuera, se les quedaba pequeña. Es el caso saxofonista Anthony Braxton con el que colaboró en muchas ocasiones.

A pesar de venir de distintas tradiciones, Braxton, miembro de la Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians y Teitelbaum se movían en un terreno común. Eran parte de una generación comprometida con superar los límites.

Teitelbaum fue también uno de los primeros globalistas músicales. En 1970, mientras estudiaba etnomusicología en la universidad de Wesleyan, Connecticut, fundó la World Band, un colectivo de improvisación con músicos de oriente medio, India, Japón y Corea. Gracias a una segunda beca Fullbright ,en 1976 pasó un año en Tokio estudiando shakuhachi, la flauta de bambú japonesa, con la que grabaría en 1977, Blends, en colaboración con su maestro, Katsuya Yokoyama. También se interesó por la tradición musical judía, como reflejó en dos óperas multimedia Golem (1989) y Z´vi (2003) .

Además de músico y compositor, Teitelbaum se dedicó a la enseñanza en instituciones y universidades de California, Chicago y Toronto. Casado con la pianista japonesa Hiroko Sakurazawa, en 1988 empezó a dirigir el estudio de composición electrónica de la universidad de Bard, en el estado de Nueva York, donde permanecería hasta el final de su carrera.

Fuente: El País

ca8908ece238ad1e4cecea227c61f-4670144.jpg
Subir
1
Endre
#2 por Endre el 23/04/2020
Una entrevista que le hicieron para la web Astronauta Pinguim en 2014

Alguien escribió:


ASTRONAUTA - How did you discover music in your life and what were your first steps into the musical world?

RICHARD - My father, a lawyer by trade, was an excellent amateur classical pianist, so I heard him playing frequently from an very early age. I started studying with him when I was about six, and then went on to study with a fine European piano teacher living in New York named Mark Goldin. I also started going to concerts at Carnegie Hall and elsewhere when quite young, and played in recitals that Mark gave with his students each year - pieces by Mozart, Mendelsohn, Brahms, etc. that included the piano part of several piano concertos that I played with him on two pianos.

ASTRONAUTA - How and when did you become interested in electronic music and synthesizers?

RICHARD - I heard a lecture by Stockhausen while I was at college near Philadelphia around 1958. He played a number of his early electronic pieces from that period and I was fascinated by the music. In graduate school at Yale I invited him to lecture there as well. I also invited John Cage and Mauricio Kagel to lecture. Cage was particularly stimulating and controversial. He did his simultaneous lecture "Where are we going, What are we doing" that is published in 'Silence' with three tape recorders and his own amplified voice. I wasn't sure what to make of it, but I knew that something changed in my consciousness in a mysterious way.

ASTRONAUTA - In the sixties you studied and worked in Italy with Luigi Nono, and you're also responsible for bringing the first Moog synthesizer to Europe, when you co-founded the live electronic music group Musica Elettronica Viva. What are your memories about that time?

RICHARD - I went to Italy on a Fulbright in 1964 and studied for the first year in Rome with Goffreddo Petrasi. Then I got the Fulbright renewed and moved to Venice to work with Nono, whom I had met and liked very much, and whose music interested me much more. I wrote a post-serial piece for chamber orchestra piece which I have never had played (I still have it in pencil score) which reflected the changes my music was going through at the time. It starts out very strictly and gradually introduces freely improvised sections. I was reading Cage's recently published 'Silence' at the time, and hanging out with The Living Theater and jazz musicians like Steve Lacy and Ornette Coleman, and the beginnings of Musica Elettronica Viva. Finally Nono and I had a friendly argument about getting more of a immediate experience from my musical efforts, and I went back to Rome to join up with MEV as a composer-performer. We played several hundred concerts in the next few years.

ASTRONAUTA - How did you meet Robert Moog and what are your memories about him?

RICHARD - One night in Rome I had a kind of vision about making music using brainwaves in some way. Frederic Rzewski told me about a man named Robert Moog who had created a new synthesizer in upstate New York. I started researching about brainwaves and wrote to ask Moog if his synthesizer could be used to somehow turn brainwaves into sound, and he quickly responded that it could, by amplifying and using the brainwaves as control signals for the synthesizer. I went back to New York and found Lloyd Gilden, a psychologist at Queens College who was doing similar work with brainwaves and biofeedback. He hired me to work both as lab technician and subject for his experiments and I worked there for almost a year, making money to buy a used Moog synthesizer the following fall. With the help of my old friend composer David Behrman I also learned to construct simple voltage controlled circuits such as voltage controlled amplifiers, etc. Moog built me a high gain differential amplifier to raise the level of the brainwaves to those needed as control signals, and I returned with that and the Moog to re-join MEV in the fall of 1967.

My memories of Bob Moog are very positive. He was a very warm and friendly man - totally unpretentious and very helpful. It is a great loss that he is gone.

ASTRONAUTA - Some of your early works included biofeedback techniques, brainwaves, heartbeats and other signals from human body. What were those techniques and how was the process you used to create it?

RICHARD - The first piece I did with those techniques was called 'In Tune' (1967). It was premiered at the American Academy in Rome and the American Church there as well. At the Church I had one "subject" performer whose heartbeats, breath and brainwaves were amplified. I controlled the levels and orchestrated the Moog sounds using the brainwaves as control signals. They supplied the rhythmic impulses giving intermittent beats around ten times per second which gradually increased in consistency and continuity as the positive feedback effected the subject, who also controlled them by opening and closing her eyes and changing her internal attention states. At the Academy I had two subjects who performed similar tasks. I also used these signals in the collective improvisations that MEV did together, and gradually added other pieces. In Toronto a few years later I added video synthesis controlled by brainwaves which modulated the image of a Tai Chi performer in real time, accompanied by South Indian Mridangam player Trichy Sankaran. For most of these pieces, Barbara Mayfield was the brainwave performer. Sometimes we also employed several members of the MEV group with different peoples heart, breath and brain signals, exploring non-verbal communication through these channels.

ASTRONAUTA - Do you still have some of the analog synthesizers you used in the sixties and seventies?

RICHARD - Yes, I still have my original Moog, as well as a number of additional Moog modules I added over the years, several Micro Moogs (at least one of them quite modified with an additional synth built in, etc.). I have sampled the big Moog and use those samples in Ableton Live, not being up to dragging the whole apparatus around these days.

ASTRONAUTA - What are your plans to the future, new recordings, next concerts? Any plans to come to Brazil? (By the way, have you ever been in Brazil?)

RICHARD - In the last couple of years I have released a recording of a recent live solo concert at performance space An Die Musik in Baltimore on the Mutable label, available by download on the web, and also a CD called Piano Plus of music for piano solo played by Frederic Rzewski, piano, piano, computer and interactive Disklavier, played by Ursula Oppens, piano, computer and sampler/synthesizer played by Aki Takahashi and myself, and three pieces for three computer enhanced player pianos played by myself, released on the New World Records label. Some new CDs should be forthcoming as well.

Yes, I have been to Rio for a few days en route back from a concert with my friend Carlos Zingano in Buenos Aires some years ago, but have never played in Brazil. I had a great time going to a samba school and a Candomble ceremony and would be delighted to come back and do a concert or an opera there.

Subir
1
jd800 forever
#3 por jd800 forever el 23/04/2020
como siempre gracias
Subir
Endre
#4 por Endre el 25/04/2020
jd800 forever escribió:
como siempre gracias

Gracias a gente como tú, sensible a estas músicas.
Subir
Endre
#5 por Endre el 25/04/2020
[Este vídeo ya no está disponible en Youtube]
Subir
Hilos similares
Responder

Regístrate o para poder postear en este hilo